Race relations

Chief Personnel Specialist Jennifer Johnston conducts an extremism stand down March 19 aboard the USS Gerald R. Ford. The Pentagon ordered all service branches to conduct the stand downs after the Jan. 6 Capitol insurrection.
Angel Thuy Jaskuloski / U.S. Navy

After the January 6 Capitol insurrection, the Pentagon ordered all service branches to discuss extremism with the troops. But observers say that's only a first step toward eliminating extremist behavior.

Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin talks with Army Maj. Gen. William J. Walker of District of Columbia National Guard outside the U.S. Capitol Jan. 29.
Erica Jaros / U.S. Army National Guard

Pentagon leaders were concerned about extremism in the military even before the Jan. 6 insurrection. But new Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin said he wants everyone in the ranks to understand it's a priority.

95-year-old World War II veteran Luther Hendricks poses with some of his military honors. He was a member of the Montford Point Marines, a group of African-American troops who trained at a segregated camp in North Carolina.
Hendricks family / U.S. Marine Corps

President Roosevelt opened all branches of the military to Black troops in 1941, but for African-American service members like Luther Hendricks, racism still was prevalent.

Rear Adm. Alvin Holsey (left) speaks with Ensign Dimitri Foster aboard the USS Lake Champlain in 2018. Holsey - one of the Navy's few Black admirals - heads the One Navy Task Force
Craig Z. Rodarte / U.S. Navy

The One Navy Task Force is looking at why only a handful of African Americans reach top jobs. It's also examining discrimination in all aspects of Navy life.

The Department of Veterans Affairs in St. Louis is one of seeveral VA locations that have held small group sessions to help veterans deal with race and mental health.
Department of Veterans Affairs

A group of VA psychologists across the country have formed race-based stress and trauma support groups for veterans of color.

Risha Grant, an inclusion and bias expert, holds a closed-door discussion with leaders at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, N.J. June 30. Throughout the summer, the Air Force has been holding town halls and trainings about racial injustice.
Sarah Brice / U.S. Air Force

Advocates are calling attention to statistics that show Black airmen are brought up for punishment more often than their white counterparts. The Air Force says it's trying to figure out why.

 Soldiers gather for a 2019 awards ceremony at Fort Bragg, N.C. The base is one of 10 that Pentagon leaders say they are open to renaming.
Joshua Cowden / U.S. Army

With the call for changing the names of 10 Southern military bases gaining momentum in Washington, the question is starting to arise in Washington - and outside of it - of what names might replace those of the Confederate generals they now bear.

Black and white Marines served side by side during the Vietnam War, as seen in this 1966 photo of a firefight with the Viet Cong. But racial tension was not uncommon throughout the armed services.
U.S. Marine Corps

Camp Lejeune, N.C. was the first of several bases to experience racial violence during the Vietnam War. It led to major reforms in military racial policies.